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Definitions and terminology related to cryptoeconomics, blockchain and distributed ledger technology.

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A nonce is an arbitrary number usable just once in a cryptographic communication. Nonces are used in proof-of-work systems to vary cryptographic hash functions' input. In certain PoW systems, miners compete to find a nonce that produces a hash with a value lower than or equal to that set by the network difficulty. Authentication protocols may use nonces to ensure that old communications cannot be reused in replay attacks.