X

Feedback + Support

Need Assistance? Notice something missing or broken? Let us know!

Press esc to dismiss

project icon for thunder

Thunder Token

TT
$0.005385
-10.29%
Negative delta icon

ThunderCore is a permissionless, Turing-complete smart contract platform offering full EVM-compatibility and PaLa, a new variant of Proof-of-Stake consensus, as its distinguishing features.

Overview

Project Stage

Live status icon

Amount Raised

$50,000,000.00

Market Cap

$34MM

Sector

Smart Contract Platform

Blockchain

Native token icon

Thunder

Funding Source

Token Sale

Project Profile

ThunderCore is a permissionless, Turing-complete smart contract platform utilizing PaLa, a new variant of Proof-of-Stake consensus. The dApp-focused project intends to harness Ethereum’s existing developer ecosystem and tooling while improving upon the platform’s scalability restraints; thus, ThunderCore is completely Ethereum Virtual Machine compatible, theoretically allowing any Ethereum-based dApp or smart contract to operate on Thundercore with only minimal adjustments to source code necessary. The Thunder Protocol powering ThunderCore evolved from Thunderella, an earlier Byzantine Fault Tolerant blockchain protocol proposed in a 2017 whitepaper by Cornell professors Rafael Pass and Elaine Shi, both co-founders of the Initiative for Cryptocurrency and Smart Contracts (IC3). Shi led ThunderCore’s development as Chief Scientist, working alongside CEO Chris Wang, founder of Playdom, a gaming ecosystem company later acquired by Disney for $500M. The ThunderCore team is based in Sunnyvale, California. The project was founded in 2018 and launched its mainnet at the start of 2019.

Protocol Details

While at times emulating its generational peers, ThunderCore’s initial uniqueness originated from its simultaneous pursuit of EVM-compatibility, scalability via the PaLa consensus protocol, and security through the use of a ‘fast-path’ and ‘slow chain.’ ThunderCore is fully compatible with the Ethereum Virtual Machine, meaning any Solidity-based Ethereum dApps and smart contracts may be ported over to and become fully operational on ThunderCore with only minor code adjustments. As such, the platform is theoretically able harness not only the multitude of technological contributions already made to Ethereum, but potentially also the vast community of developers already experienced in Solidity.

ThunderCore was conceived as one of many smart contract platforms comprising an industry-wide effort to address the blockchain trilemma: the hypothesis that a DLT system must sacrifice either security, decentralization or scalability in pursuit of the other two attributes. ThunderCore seeks scalability through the PaLa consensus protocol, which streamlines consensus on its own ‘fast-path’ blockchain that is then secured by an unaffiliated ‘slow chain.’ The ‘fast-path’ is best defined as ThunderCore’s own, native blockchain, while the ‘slow chain’ may be any entirely separate, independently functioning blockchain, such as Ethereum or Edgeware. Notably, ThunderCore is not a Layer 2 solution, but rather a completely sovereign blockchain merely employing another blockchain for contingency purposes.

On ThunderCore’s fast-path blockchain, the partially synchronous, Byzantine Fault Tolerant PaLa mechanism achieves streamlined Proof-of-Stake consensus amongst nodes through a condensed notarization procedure. In a typical PoS protocol comprised of a predetermined block producer and a committee of validators, a proposed block requires two sets of notarizations to be finalized. First, validators must confirm the validity of block and the transactions it contains. Second, as it is possible for even validated blocks to be ‘orphaned,’ it must be demonstrated that a sufficient portion of validators (usually two-thirds) have acknowledged the block’s validity by adding it to their blockchains; at this point the block becomes immutable and a canonical chain is propagated throughout the network.

In contrast, PaLa effectively eliminates the latter step by merging it with the first step for the next block, enhancing throughput and scalability. In PaLa, one block is produced every ‘epoch,’ with the currently proposed block designated the ‘child block’ and the previous block designated the ‘parent block.’ If the block labels demonstrate a valid parent-child relationship, an affirmative vote on the validity of the ‘child block’ indicates network acknowledgement of ‘parent block,’ finalizing the latter block and shifting the child block to the parent block position. As the process repeats, the overlapping validation and confirmation processes therefore allow proper notarization to occur in one step.

Consensus voter committees are elected for three hours sessions at a time by the ‘Accelerator:’ an algorithmically-governed, autonomous central authority coordinating proper committee selection and transaction ordering. To be eligible for selection, one submits a ‘bid’ detailing factors such as available stake size and desired gas fees, which are evaluated algorithmically. The top 32 bidders form the new committee, and gas fees for the given session are set at two-thirds the ascending median of those stated in the accepted bids. Those wishing to serve as block proposers must also include a public URI and proposing key; each eligible and willing proposer from the elected committee is then granted block proposing opportunities proportionate to stake size, receiving a guaranteed minimum of one such opportunity. In addition to receiving equal gas fees, committee members receive block rewards from a pre-established, protocol-governed fund containing 40% of the total token supply. To disincentivize incomplete submission of votes, the block proposer’s share of the block rewards are determined by the number of committee votes they report; the remaining block rewards are distributed to voters on a pro rata basis. Evidence of malicious or negligent behavior results in the slashing and/or freezing for 1,000,000 blocks of one’s stake; notably, however, offline nodes are not punished.

While the above procedure takes place on ThunderCore’s so-called ‘fast-path,’ a ‘slow chain’ is also employed to further secure the network. A slow chain, on which transactions are ‘backed up’ at a delayed pace, serves a method of recovering the ledger of transactions in the event the Accelerator is corrupted or comes under attack, or if less than three-quarters committee participation results in a consensus error. Further, ThunderCore’s transactions and consensus may occur on a slow chain directly until the comprised fast-path blockchain regains proper functionality. With regard to its underlying slow chain, ThunderCore is blockchain agnostic: any Turing-complete PoS or PoW blockchain may be employed. Nonetheless, ThunderCore initially launched with Ethereum as its slow chain.

Asset Details

ThunderTokens (TT) are ThunderCore’s freely-tradable and fungible native asset. These tokens function similarly to Ethereum’s ether: among other functions, they serve to pay block rewards and gas fees for transactions and smart contract execution. Additionally, TT may be staked to perform node duties and be received as compensation. A total of 2,618,829,515 TT were sold during four token sales occurring in 2018 and 2019 for a total of $50,500,000. Of the 10,000,000,000 total supply of ThunderTokens, the remaining 34% and 40% were allocated to founder’s rewards and block rewards, respectively. While token allocations vest over time, there exists no permanent inflation mechanism within the ThunderCore protocol.

project icon for thunder

ThunderCore

TT
$0.005385
-10.29%
Negative delta icon

ThunderCore is a permissionless, Turing-complete smart contract platform offering full EVM-compatibility and PaLa, a new variant of Proof-of-Stake consensus, as its distinguishing features.

Overview

STATUS

MARKET CAP

BLOCKCHAIN

TOKEN TYPE

Live status icon
Live
$34MM
Native token icon

Thunder

N/A

FUNDING SOURCE

AMOUNT RAISED

SECTOR

Token Sale

$50MM

Smart Contract Platform

Project Profile

ThunderCore is a permissionless, Turing-complete smart contract platform utilizing PaLa, a new variant of Proof-of-Stake consensus. The dApp-focused project intends to harness Ethereum’s existing developer ecosystem and tooling while improving upon the platform’s scalability restraints; thus, ThunderCore is completely Ethereum Virtual Machine compatible, theoretically allowing any Ethereum-based dApp or smart contract to operate on Thundercore with only minimal adjustments to source code necessary. The Thunder Protocol powering ThunderCore evolved from Thunderella, an earlier Byzantine Fault Tolerant blockchain protocol proposed in a 2017 whitepaper by Cornell professors Rafael Pass and Elaine Shi, both co-founders of the Initiative for Cryptocurrency and Smart Contracts (IC3). Shi led ThunderCore’s development as Chief Scientist, working alongside CEO Chris Wang, founder of Playdom, a gaming ecosystem company later acquired by Disney for $500M. The ThunderCore team is based in Sunnyvale, California. The project was founded in 2018 and launched its mainnet at the start of 2019.

Protocol Details

While at times emulating its generational peers, ThunderCore’s initial uniqueness originated from its simultaneous pursuit of EVM-compatibility, scalability via the PaLa consensus protocol, and security through the use of a ‘fast-path’ and ‘slow chain.’ ThunderCore is fully compatible with the Ethereum Virtual Machine, meaning any Solidity-based Ethereum dApps and smart contracts may be ported over to and become fully operational on ThunderCore with only minor code adjustments. As such, the platform is theoretically able harness not only the multitude of technological contributions already made to Ethereum, but potentially also the vast community of developers already experienced in Solidity.

ThunderCore was conceived as one of many smart contract platforms comprising an industry-wide effort to address the blockchain trilemma: the hypothesis that a DLT system must sacrifice either security, decentralization or scalability in pursuit of the other two attributes. ThunderCore seeks scalability through the PaLa consensus protocol, which streamlines consensus on its own ‘fast-path’ blockchain that is then secured by an unaffiliated ‘slow chain.’ The ‘fast-path’ is best defined as ThunderCore’s own, native blockchain, while the ‘slow chain’ may be any entirely separate, independently functioning blockchain, such as Ethereum or Edgeware. Notably, ThunderCore is not a Layer 2 solution, but rather a completely sovereign blockchain merely employing another blockchain for contingency purposes.

On ThunderCore’s fast-path blockchain, the partially synchronous, Byzantine Fault Tolerant PaLa mechanism achieves streamlined Proof-of-Stake consensus amongst nodes through a condensed notarization procedure. In a typical PoS protocol comprised of a predetermined block producer and a committee of validators, a proposed block requires two sets of notarizations to be finalized. First, validators must confirm the validity of block and the transactions it contains. Second, as it is possible for even validated blocks to be ‘orphaned,’ it must be demonstrated that a sufficient portion of validators (usually two-thirds) have acknowledged the block’s validity by adding it to their blockchains; at this point the block becomes immutable and a canonical chain is propagated throughout the network.

In contrast, PaLa effectively eliminates the latter step by merging it with the first step for the next block, enhancing throughput and scalability. In PaLa, one block is produced every ‘epoch,’ with the currently proposed block designated the ‘child block’ and the previous block designated the ‘parent block.’ If the block labels demonstrate a valid parent-child relationship, an affirmative vote on the validity of the ‘child block’ indicates network acknowledgement of ‘parent block,’ finalizing the latter block and shifting the child block to the parent block position. As the process repeats, the overlapping validation and confirmation processes therefore allow proper notarization to occur in one step.

Consensus voter committees are elected for three hours sessions at a time by the ‘Accelerator:’ an algorithmically-governed, autonomous central authority coordinating proper committee selection and transaction ordering. To be eligible for selection, one submits a ‘bid’ detailing factors such as available stake size and desired gas fees, which are evaluated algorithmically. The top 32 bidders form the new committee, and gas fees for the given session are set at two-thirds the ascending median of those stated in the accepted bids. Those wishing to serve as block proposers must also include a public URI and proposing key; each eligible and willing proposer from the elected committee is then granted block proposing opportunities proportionate to stake size, receiving a guaranteed minimum of one such opportunity. In addition to receiving equal gas fees, committee members receive block rewards from a pre-established, protocol-governed fund containing 40% of the total token supply. To disincentivize incomplete submission of votes, the block proposer’s share of the block rewards are determined by the number of committee votes they report; the remaining block rewards are distributed to voters on a pro rata basis. Evidence of malicious or negligent behavior results in the slashing and/or freezing for 1,000,000 blocks of one’s stake; notably, however, offline nodes are not punished.

While the above procedure takes place on ThunderCore’s so-called ‘fast-path,’ a ‘slow chain’ is also employed to further secure the network. A slow chain, on which transactions are ‘backed up’ at a delayed pace, serves a method of recovering the ledger of transactions in the event the Accelerator is corrupted or comes under attack, or if less than three-quarters committee participation results in a consensus error. Further, ThunderCore’s transactions and consensus may occur on a slow chain directly until the comprised fast-path blockchain regains proper functionality. With regard to its underlying slow chain, ThunderCore is blockchain agnostic: any Turing-complete PoS or PoW blockchain may be employed. Nonetheless, ThunderCore initially launched with Ethereum as its slow chain.

Asset Details

ThunderTokens (TT) are ThunderCore’s freely-tradable and fungible native asset. These tokens function similarly to Ethereum’s ether: among other functions, they serve to pay block rewards and gas fees for transactions and smart contract execution. Additionally, TT may be staked to perform node duties and be received as compensation. A total of 2,618,829,515 TT were sold during four token sales occurring in 2018 and 2019 for a total of $50,500,000. Of the 10,000,000,000 total supply of ThunderTokens, the remaining 34% and 40% were allocated to founder’s rewards and block rewards, respectively. While token allocations vest over time, there exists no permanent inflation mechanism within the ThunderCore protocol.

Show projects Article List
Sort icon: direction descending
Profile Updated
78d
Project details updated.
No icon fallback
ALTG
Profile Updated
78d
Project details updated.
Project Added as Signal
91d
Project details updated.
Profile Updated
91d
Project details updated.
Profile Updated
92d
Project details updated.
project icon for beam
BEAM
Profile Updated
92d
Project details updated.
Profile Updated
97d
Project details updated.
Profile Updated
97d
Project details updated.
project icon for qtum
QTUM
Profile Updated
102d
Project details updated.
Profile Updated
102d
Project details updated.
Profile Updated
103d
Project details updated.
project icon for aion
AION
Profile Updated
103d
Project details updated.
Profile Updated
104d
Project details updated.
project icon for grin
GRIN
Profile Updated
104d
Project details updated.
Profile Updated
105d
Project details updated.
Profile Updated
105d
Project details updated.
Profile Updated
110d
Project details updated.
project icon for kadena
KADENA
Profile Updated
110d
Project details updated.
project icon for chia
CHIA
Profile Updated
112d
Project details updated.
project icon for waves
WAVES
Profile Updated
112d
Project details updated
Profile Updated
114d
Project details updated.
Profile Updated
114d
Project details updated.
Profile Updated
116d
Project details updated.
No icon fallback
KLAY
Profile Updated
116d
Project details updated.
Profile Updated
118d
Project details updated.
project icon for neo
NEO
Profile Updated
118d
Project details updated.
Profile Updated
119d
Project details updated.
Profile Updated
119d
Project details updated.
project icon for aelf
ELF
Profile Updated
120d
Project details updated.
project icon for eos
EOS
Profile Updated
120d
Project details updated.
Profile Updated
121d
Project details updated.
Profile Updated
121d
Project details updated.
project icon for storj
STORJ
Profile Updated
125d
Project details updated.
Profile Updated
126d
Project details updated.
Profile Updated
126d
Project details updated.
project icon for zrx
ZRX
Profile Updated
126d
Project details updated.
project icon for tether
USDT
Profile Updated
127d
Project details updated.
project icon for wax
WAXP
Profile Updated
127d
Project details updated.
Profile Updated
127d
Project details updated.
Profile Updated
130d
Project details updated.
Profile Updated
130d
Project details updated.
Profile Updated
131d
Project details updated.
project icon for tzero
TZEROP
Profile Updated
131d
Project details updated.
Profile Updated
133d
Project details updated.
Profile Updated
133d
Protocol and asset details updated.
project icon for skale
SKALE
Project Added as Signal
133d
SKALE is an Ethereum Layer 2 scalability protocol facilitating the formation and operation of on-demand elastic sidechains.
Project Added as Signal
151d
TrueBit is a distributed marketplace for off-chain computation of resource-intensive smart contracts, verifying proper results using a game theory-based incentive structure rather than cryptographic proofs.
Project Added as Signal
162d
Spacemesh is a cryptocurrency and smart contract platform operating on directed acyclic graph infrastructure and utilizing a Proof-of-Spacetime consensus algorithm that intends to achieve a more equitable distribution of mining rights by decoupling the conferment thereof with access to financial means.
No icon fallback
BZRX
Project Added as Signal
165d
bZx is an Ethereum-based, decentralized cryptoasset lending protocol that facilitates margin trading of ETH and ERC-20 tokens.
Project Added as Signal
168d
Oasis Network is a permissionless, blockchain-based cloud computing platform that aims to improve upon the scalability and privacy of its peers through novel architecture.
Project Added as Signal
180d
FTX is a cryptoasset derivatives exchange, powered by a proprietary liquidation engine and clawback prevention protocol, offering futures, leveraged tokens and an over-the-counter trading portal.
Project Added as Signal
184d
ThunderCore is a permissionless, Turing-complete smart contract platform offering full EVM-compatibility and PaLa, a new variant of Proof-of-Stake consensus, as its distinguishing features.
Project Added as Signal
186d
Santiment is a blockchain data and analytics provider offering content streams, data feeds and analysis, APIs and its own ERC-20 token, SAN.
Project Added as Signal
200d
Nexus Mutual is a blockchain-based, protocol-enabled mutual insurance fund operating on Ethereum and owned entirely by its members, who buy into the fund by purchasing NXM tokens.
Project Added as Signal
229d
Gods Unchained is a decentralized trading card game that uses the ERC-721 non-fungible token standard to establish on-chain ownership of cards to be used in off-chain gameplay.
Project Added as Signal
238d
Synthetix is a decentralized synthetic asset issuance protocol consisting of an Ethereum-based smart contract, an exchange, and a dApp to facilitate smart contract interaction.
project icon for zrx
ZRX
Profile Updated
244d
Update on 0x v3, including protocol fees, staking incentives, and liquidity pooling with Uniswap, Kyber, and Oasis.
No icon fallback
LUNA
Project Added as Signal
252d
Terra is an algorithmically-governed, seigniorage share style stablecoin blockchain platform to which a collection of fiat-pegged tokens and a stabilizing cryptoasset, Luna, are native.
Profile Updated
269d
Stellar Development Foundation burns 55 billion XLM from its reserves, over half of the total supply, and removes the ongoing inflation to current token holders. The SDF had previously earmarked these tokens for community airdrops and ongoing organization funding.
Project Added as Signal
284d
Nervos is a public, PoW-based smart contract platform that utilizes off-chain computation in service of transaction scalability and implements a unique token emissions mechanic that imposes a perpetual cost for on-chain data storage.
Profile Updated
295d
Supply Information added.
project icon for beam
BEAM
Profile Updated
298d
Supply Information added.
project icon for grin
GRIN
Profile Updated
298d
Supply Information added.
Profile Updated
301d
Supply Information added.
Profile Updated
301d
Supply Information added.
project icon for siacoin
SC
Profile Updated
301d
Mining Information added.
project icon for dash
DASH
Profile Updated
302d
Mining and Supply Information added.
Profile Updated
302d
Mining and Supply Information added.
Profile Updated
305d
Mining and Supply information added.
Profile Updated
306d
Mining and Supply Information added.
project icon for kin
KIN
Project Removed as Signal
313d
Kin removed as Signal.
project icon for simple
OST
Project Added as Signal
313d
OST added as Signal.
Profile Updated
328d
Signal profile updated.
Project Added as Signal
341d
Edgeware added as Signal.
Profile Updated
343d
Ethereum Classic profile added.
project icon for steem
STEEM
Profile Updated
355d
Signal profile updated.
Profile Updated
355d
Signal profile updated.
project icon for neo
NEO
Profile Updated
355d
Signal profile updated.
No icon fallback
KLAY
Project Added as Signal
355d
Klaytn added as Signal.
No icon fallback
ALTG
Project Added as Signal
362d
Althea added as Signal.
Profile Updated
368d
Signal profile updated.
No icon fallback
UMA
Project Added as Signal
375d
UMA added as Signal.
No icon fallback
LIBRA
Project Added as Signal
376d
Libra added as Signal.
Project Added as Signal
381d
Chainlink added as Signal.
Profile Updated
387d
Signal profile updated.
Profile Updated
394d
Signal profile updated.
project icon for chia
CHIA
Profile Updated
400d
Signal profile updated.
project icon for bitfinex-leo
LEOTOKEN
Project Added as Signal
406d
Bitfinex LEO added as Signal.
project icon for coda
CODA
Profile Updated
411d
Signal profile updated.
Project Added as Signal
417d
Paxos added as Signal.
project icon for celo
CELO
Project Added as Signal
423d
Celo added as Signal.

You've reached the end of the list

project icon for thunder

ThunderCore

TT
$0.005385
-10.29%
Negative delta icon

ThunderCore is a permissionless, Turing-complete smart contract platform offering full EVM-compatibility and PaLa, a new variant of Proof-of-Stake consensus, as its distinguishing features.

Overview

STATUS

MARKET CAP

BLOCKCHAIN

TOKEN TYPE

Live status icon
Live
$34MM
Native token icon

Thunder

N/A

FUNDING SOURCE

AMOUNT RAISED

SECTOR

Token Sale

$50MM

Smart Contract Platform

Project Profile

ThunderCore is a permissionless, Turing-complete smart contract platform utilizing PaLa, a new variant of Proof-of-Stake consensus. The dApp-focused project intends to harness Ethereum’s existing developer ecosystem and tooling while improving upon the platform’s scalability restraints; thus, ThunderCore is completely Ethereum Virtual Machine compatible, theoretically allowing any Ethereum-based dApp or smart contract to operate on Thundercore with only minimal adjustments to source code necessary. The Thunder Protocol powering ThunderCore evolved from Thunderella, an earlier Byzantine Fault Tolerant blockchain protocol proposed in a 2017 whitepaper by Cornell professors Rafael Pass and Elaine Shi, both co-founders of the Initiative for Cryptocurrency and Smart Contracts (IC3). Shi led ThunderCore’s development as Chief Scientist, working alongside CEO Chris Wang, founder of Playdom, a gaming ecosystem company later acquired by Disney for $500M. The ThunderCore team is based in Sunnyvale, California. The project was founded in 2018 and launched its mainnet at the start of 2019.

Protocol Details

While at times emulating its generational peers, ThunderCore’s initial uniqueness originated from its simultaneous pursuit of EVM-compatibility, scalability via the PaLa consensus protocol, and security through the use of a ‘fast-path’ and ‘slow chain.’ ThunderCore is fully compatible with the Ethereum Virtual Machine, meaning any Solidity-based Ethereum dApps and smart contracts may be ported over to and become fully operational on ThunderCore with only minor code adjustments. As such, the platform is theoretically able harness not only the multitude of technological contributions already made to Ethereum, but potentially also the vast community of developers already experienced in Solidity.

ThunderCore was conceived as one of many smart contract platforms comprising an industry-wide effort to address the blockchain trilemma: the hypothesis that a DLT system must sacrifice either security, decentralization or scalability in pursuit of the other two attributes. ThunderCore seeks scalability through the PaLa consensus protocol, which streamlines consensus on its own ‘fast-path’ blockchain that is then secured by an unaffiliated ‘slow chain.’ The ‘fast-path’ is best defined as ThunderCore’s own, native blockchain, while the ‘slow chain’ may be any entirely separate, independently functioning blockchain, such as Ethereum or Edgeware. Notably, ThunderCore is not a Layer 2 solution, but rather a completely sovereign blockchain merely employing another blockchain for contingency purposes.

On ThunderCore’s fast-path blockchain, the partially synchronous, Byzantine Fault Tolerant PaLa mechanism achieves streamlined Proof-of-Stake consensus amongst nodes through a condensed notarization procedure. In a typical PoS protocol comprised of a predetermined block producer and a committee of validators, a proposed block requires two sets of notarizations to be finalized. First, validators must confirm the validity of block and the transactions it contains. Second, as it is possible for even validated blocks to be ‘orphaned,’ it must be demonstrated that a sufficient portion of validators (usually two-thirds) have acknowledged the block’s validity by adding it to their blockchains; at this point the block becomes immutable and a canonical chain is propagated throughout the network.

In contrast, PaLa effectively eliminates the latter step by merging it with the first step for the next block, enhancing throughput and scalability. In PaLa, one block is produced every ‘epoch,’ with the currently proposed block designated the ‘child block’ and the previous block designated the ‘parent block.’ If the block labels demonstrate a valid parent-child relationship, an affirmative vote on the validity of the ‘child block’ indicates network acknowledgement of ‘parent block,’ finalizing the latter block and shifting the child block to the parent block position. As the process repeats, the overlapping validation and confirmation processes therefore allow proper notarization to occur in one step.

Consensus voter committees are elected for three hours sessions at a time by the ‘Accelerator:’ an algorithmically-governed, autonomous central authority coordinating proper committee selection and transaction ordering. To be eligible for selection, one submits a ‘bid’ detailing factors such as available stake size and desired gas fees, which are evaluated algorithmically. The top 32 bidders form the new committee, and gas fees for the given session are set at two-thirds the ascending median of those stated in the accepted bids. Those wishing to serve as block proposers must also include a public URI and proposing key; each eligible and willing proposer from the elected committee is then granted block proposing opportunities proportionate to stake size, receiving a guaranteed minimum of one such opportunity. In addition to receiving equal gas fees, committee members receive block rewards from a pre-established, protocol-governed fund containing 40% of the total token supply. To disincentivize incomplete submission of votes, the block proposer’s share of the block rewards are determined by the number of committee votes they report; the remaining block rewards are distributed to voters on a pro rata basis. Evidence of malicious or negligent behavior results in the slashing and/or freezing for 1,000,000 blocks of one’s stake; notably, however, offline nodes are not punished.

While the above procedure takes place on ThunderCore’s so-called ‘fast-path,’ a ‘slow chain’ is also employed to further secure the network. A slow chain, on which transactions are ‘backed up’ at a delayed pace, serves a method of recovering the ledger of transactions in the event the Accelerator is corrupted or comes under attack, or if less than three-quarters committee participation results in a consensus error. Further, ThunderCore’s transactions and consensus may occur on a slow chain directly until the comprised fast-path blockchain regains proper functionality. With regard to its underlying slow chain, ThunderCore is blockchain agnostic: any Turing-complete PoS or PoW blockchain may be employed. Nonetheless, ThunderCore initially launched with Ethereum as its slow chain.

Asset Details

ThunderTokens (TT) are ThunderCore’s freely-tradable and fungible native asset. These tokens function similarly to Ethereum’s ether: among other functions, they serve to pay block rewards and gas fees for transactions and smart contract execution. Additionally, TT may be staked to perform node duties and be received as compensation. A total of 2,618,829,515 TT were sold during four token sales occurring in 2018 and 2019 for a total of $50,500,000. Of the 10,000,000,000 total supply of ThunderTokens, the remaining 34% and 40% were allocated to founder’s rewards and block rewards, respectively. While token allocations vest over time, there exists no permanent inflation mechanism within the ThunderCore protocol.